Threads — Functions for using GDK in multi-threaded programs


#include <gdk/gdk.h>

#define     GDK_THREADS_ENTER               ()
#define     GDK_THREADS_LEAVE               ()
void        gdk_threads_init                (void);
void        gdk_threads_enter               (void);
void        gdk_threads_leave               (void);
extern      GMutex *gdk_threads_mutex;
void        gdk_threads_set_lock_functions  (GCallback enter_fn,
                                             GCallback leave_fn);


For thread safety, GDK relies on the thread primitives in GLib, and on the thread-safe GLib main loop.

GLib is completely thread safe (all global data is automatically locked), but individual data structure instances are not automatically locked for performance reasons. So e.g. you must coordinate accesses to the same GHashTable from multiple threads.

GTK+ is "thread aware" but not thread safe — it provides a global lock controlled by gdk_threads_enter()/gdk_threads_leave() which protects all use of GTK+. That is, only one thread can use GTK+ at any given time.

Unfortunately the above holds with the X11 backend only. With the Win32 backend, GDK calls should not be attempted from multiple threads at all.

You must call g_thread_init() and gdk_threads_init() before executing any other GTK+ or GDK functions in a threaded GTK+ program.

Idles, timeouts, and input functions are executed outside of the main GTK+ lock. So, if you need to call GTK+ inside of such a callback, you must surround the callback with a gdk_threads_enter()/gdk_threads_leave() pair. (However, signals are still executed within the main GTK+ lock.)

In particular, this means, if you are writing widgets that might be used in threaded programs, you must surround timeouts and idle functions in this matter.

As always, you must also surround any calls to GTK+ not made within a signal handler with a gdk_threads_enter()/gdk_threads_leave() pair.

Before calling gdk_threads_leave() from a thread other than your main thread, you probably want to call gdk_flush() to send all pending commands to the windowing system. (The reason you don't need to do this from the main thread is that GDK always automatically flushes pending commands when it runs out of incoming events to process and has to sleep while waiting for more events.)

A minimal main program for a threaded GTK+ application looks like:

main (int argc, char *argv[])
  GtkWidget *window;

  g_thread_init (NULL);
  gdk_threads_init ();
  gdk_threads_enter ();

  gtk_init (&argc, &argv);

  window = create_window ();
  gtk_widget_show (window);

  gtk_main ();
  gdk_threads_leave ();

  return 0;

Callbacks require a bit of attention. Callbacks from GTK+ signals are made within the GTK+ lock. However callbacks from GLib (timeouts, IO callbacks, and idle functions) are made outside of the GTK+ lock. So, within a signal handler you do not need to call gdk_threads_enter(), but within the other types of callbacks, you do.

Erik Mouw contributed the following code example to illustrate how to use threads within GTK+ programs.

 * Filename:      gtk-thread.c
 * Version:       0.99.1
 * Copyright:     Copyright (C) 1999, Erik Mouw
 * Author:        Erik Mouw <>
 * Description:   GTK threads example. 
 * Created at:    Sun Oct 17 21:27:09 1999
 * Modified by:   Erik Mouw <>
 * Modified at:   Sun Oct 24 17:21:41 1999
 * Compile with:
 * cc -o gtk-thread gtk-thread.c `gtk-config --cflags --libs gthread`
 * Thanks to Sebastian Wilhelmi and Owen Taylor for pointing out some
 * bugs.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <gtk/gtk.h>
#include <glib.h>
#include <pthread.h>

#define YES_IT_IS    (1)
#define NO_IT_IS_NOT (0)

typedef struct 
  GtkWidget *label;
  int what;
} yes_or_no_args;

static volatile int yes_or_no = YES_IT_IS;

void destroy (GtkWidget *widget, gpointer data)
  gtk_main_quit ();

void *argument_thread (void *args)
  yes_or_no_args *data = (yes_or_no_args *)args;
  gboolean say_something;

  for (;;)
      /* sleep a while */
      sleep(rand() / (RAND_MAX / 3) + 1);

      /* lock the yes_or_no_variable */

      /* do we have to say something? */
      say_something = (yes_or_no != data->what);

	  /* set the variable */
	  yes_or_no = data->what;

      /* Unlock the yes_or_no variable */
      G_UNLOCK (yes_or_no);

      if (say_something)
	  /* get GTK thread lock */
	  gdk_threads_enter ();

	  /* set label text */
	  if(data->what == YES_IT_IS)
	    gtk_label_set_text (GTK_LABEL (data->label), "O yes, it is!");
	    gtk_label_set_text (GTK_LABEL (data->label), "O no, it isn't!");

	  /* release GTK thread lock */
	  gdk_threads_leave ();

  return NULL;

int main (int argc, char *argv[])
  GtkWidget *window;
  GtkWidget *label;
  yes_or_no_args yes_args, no_args;
  pthread_t no_tid, yes_tid;

  /* init threads */
  g_thread_init (NULL);
  gdk_threads_init ();
  gdk_threads_enter ();

  /* init gtk */
  gtk_init(&argc, &argv);

  /* init random number generator */
  srand ((unsigned int) time (NULL));

  /* create a window */
  window = gtk_window_new (GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL);

  gtk_signal_connect (GTK_OBJECT (window), "destroy",
		      GTK_SIGNAL_FUNC (destroy), NULL);

  gtk_container_set_border_width (GTK_CONTAINER (window), 10);

  /* create a label */
  label = gtk_label_new ("And now for something completely different ...");
  gtk_container_add (GTK_CONTAINER (window), label);
  /* show everything */
  gtk_widget_show (label);
  gtk_widget_show (window);

  /* create the threads */
  yes_args.label = label;
  yes_args.what = YES_IT_IS;
  pthread_create (&yes_tid, NULL, argument_thread, &yes_args);

  no_args.label = label;
  no_args.what = NO_IT_IS_NOT;
  pthread_create (&no_tid, NULL, argument_thread, &no_args);

  /* enter the GTK main loop */
  gtk_main ();
  gdk_threads_leave ();

  return 0;



#define     GDK_THREADS_ENTER()

This macro marks the beginning of a critical section in which GDK and GTK+ functions can be called. Only one thread at a time can be in such a critial section. The macro expands to a no-op if G_THREADS_ENABLED has not been defined. Typically gdk_threads_enter() should be used instead of this macro.


#define     GDK_THREADS_LEAVE()

This macro marks the end of a critical section begun with GDK_THREADS_ENTER.

gdk_threads_init ()

void        gdk_threads_init                (void);

Initializes GDK so that it can be used from multiple threads in conjunction with gdk_threads_enter() and gdk_threads_leave(). g_thread_init() must be called previous to this function.

This call must be made before any use of the main loop from GTK+; to be safe, call it before gtk_init().

gdk_threads_enter ()

void        gdk_threads_enter               (void);

This macro marks the beginning of a critical section in which GDK and GTK+ functions can be called. Only one thread at a time can be in such a critial section.

gdk_threads_leave ()

void        gdk_threads_leave               (void);

Leaves a critical region begun with gdk_threads_enter().


extern GMutex *gdk_threads_mutex; /* private */


gdk_threads_mutex is deprecated and should not be used in newly-written code.

The GMutex used to implement the critical region for gdk_threads_enter()/gdk_threads_leave().

gdk_threads_set_lock_functions ()

void        gdk_threads_set_lock_functions  (GCallback enter_fn,
                                             GCallback leave_fn);

Allows the application to replace the standard method that GDK uses to protect its data structures. Normally, GDK creates a single GMutex that is locked by gdk_threads_enter(), and released by gdk_threads_leave(); using this function an application provides, instead, a function enter_fn that is called by gdk_threads_enter() and a function leave_fn that is called by gdk_threads_leave().

The functions must provide at least same locking functionality as the default implementation, but can also do extra application specific processing.

As an example, consider an application that has its own recursive lock that when held, holds the GTK+ lock as well. When GTK+ unlocks the GTK+ lock when entering a recursive main loop, the application must temporarily release its lock as well.

Most threaded GTK+ apps won't need to use this method.

This method must be called before gdk_threads_init(), and cannot be called multiple times.

enter_fn : function called to guard GDK
leave_fn : function called to release the guard

Since 2.4